Projects and People: A Handbook for Addressing Project-Induced In-Migration

October 25, 2011

This handbook is available as a complete PDF or specific sections can be downloaded.

This publication has been developed to fill an identified gap in assessing the risk of projectinduced in-migration and promoting its management. It aims to promote better recognition, understanding, and management of project-induced in-migration. Given the diversity of projects in which IFC is involved, the contexts in which they are developed, and the relationship between project development and local and regional development, this document is relevant for both private and public sector projects, and in particular for large-scale projects in the extractive, infrastructure, and manufacturing sectors.

This handbook is designed to assist the wide range of stakeholders who are directly and indirectly affected by project-induced in-migration and involved in its management, including:

  • Private sector entities establishing projects in areas with a medium-high risk of projectinduced in-migration;
  • Local, regional, and national governments that promote private sector economic development;
  • Government departments, non-governmental organizations, and community-based organizations that promote the social welfare of communities; and
  • Consultants and development practitioners providing services to the private sector entities.


  • Part 1: The business case for addressing project-induced in-migration. This part describes the main business-related impacts of project-induced in-migration, and discusses the trade-offs between proactive and reactive management of its associated impacts.
  • Part 2: The project-induced in-migration phenomenon. This part first considers the dynamics of project-induced in-migration, and then discusses its potential environmental and social impacts. A final section considers the unique aspects of in-migration in relation to artisanal and small-scale mining, resettlement, indigenous peoples, areas of high biodiversity value and cultural heritage.
  • Part 3: The assessment of the probability of project-induced in-migration and the risks that such in-migration poses to a project. Beginning with basic tools to assess the probability of and the risks posed by in-migration, this part of the document identifies the requirements for a situation analysis as a basis for developing a project-specific influx-management strategy and plan.
  • Part 4: Management approaches. A comprehensive description of potential management approaches, including approaches to reducing in-migration, managing its footprint, enhancing its positive impacts, and preventing and mitigating its negative impacts. Interventions supporting each of these approaches are described.
  • Part 5: Once a project recognizes risk and management is aware of and understands potential management approaches, the next steps involve developing a management strategy and integrating it into the project. This part helps users answer key questions in the development of a strategy and plan.
  • Additional information and document templates, including: assessment and mitigation of the risk of health impacts; Terms of Reference for an influx risk assessment and situation analysis and an influx management strategy/plan; analysis of predicted environmental and social impacts; outline of an influx management strategy and implementation plan; and project approaches to the management of in-migration.
  • Chad Cameroon Pipeline Project [PDF]